Before the first surrender of Jerusalem, he was a functioning priest. He was among those deported in to Babylonia. Ezekiel's religious call came in July He subsequently prophesied until and then was not heard of again until His latest utterance can be dated at about We strive for accuracy and fairness. Jesus followed the prophet John the Baptist. Jesus, at the outset of His ministry, began with the same message, and later His Apostles were given the same message.
Just before announcing that He would give unto Peter the keys of the kingdom, the Lord provided Peter with the opportunity to declare his faith. And they said, Some say that thou art John the Baptist: some, Elias; and others, Jeremias, or one of the prophets. He saith unto them, But whom say ye that I am? Jesus Christ was indeed a prophet but he was even more than a prophet. Just as the prophetic role of the Messiah was prefigured in the Old Testament by Moses, so the priestly role of the Messiah was prefigured in the Old Testament by the great Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the most high God see Genesis Through the power of this priesthood, Melchizedek had the same power as Enochpower over the elements, power to defy the armies of nations, and the power to be translated and taken into heaven see JST, Genesis — The God Jehovah came to earth and officiated with the Melchizedek Priesthood.
Jesus was not born of a Levitical lineage but came through Judah, the royal lineage. He fulfilled the prophecy, being the priest after the order of Melchizedek, since the lineage of Levi was not required for the higher priesthood see Hebrews — While there is little information in the Old Testament about priests holding the Melchizedek Priesthood, there is much about the Aaronic Priesthood, and the mission of Jesus Christ is largely explained in the New Testament after the model of the Aaronic high priest.
The anointing of the Aaronic priests is recorded in Leviticus 8. Moses anointed Aaron with blood upon the tip of his right ear, upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot—probably symbolizing the anointing of the whole body. Finally, Moses anointed Aaron with oil and sprinkled the oil and the blood on his garments see Leviticus Thus, the priests were washed, clothed, and anointed with blood and oil.
In the scriptures, this entire process is called consecration, and it symbolized purification—by water and blood—with a setting apart by oil. In the Old Testament, the priests had many functions. Their duties can be summarized under three categories: 1 to bless the people see Numbers —27 ; 2 to offer sacrifices and offerings for the people in order to bring about the forgiveness of their sins and transgressions see Leviticus 1—6 ; and 3 to be a mediator between God and His people see Leviticus It is possible to trace how Jesus fulfilled each of these three priestly functions in His ministry:.
The high priest and the priests would formally bless Israel. Twice each day after the regular sacrifices at the temple, the priests would bless all of Israel with a blessing called the Priestly Benediction, found in Numbers — Priests offered sacrifices and offerings on behalf of the people in order to obtain forgiveness from their sins and transgressions. Through the system of sacrifices and offerings, the priests under the law of Moses facilitated the final stages of repentance by offering on behalf of the children of Israel their sacrifices at the temple. Throughout His ministry, Jesus Christ exercised the power of His priestly office as God in forgiving sin.
The high priest was a mediator and represented the people before the Lord, and the Lord before the people. The high priest bore upon his chest the breastplate which contained twelve stones—one for each tribe see Exodus —21 —and upon his shoulders two onyx stones, each bearing the names of six of the tribes of Israel see Exodus — Thus, he represented Israel before the Lord at the tabernacle and the temple see Exodus On the Day of Atonement, under the law of Moses, the high priest would first make sacrifice on his own behalf and then enter into the Holy of Holies bearing the blood of the sacrifice, which he would then sprinkle onto the mercy seat.
He would do this once a year to bring about a remission of the sins and transgressions of the people, for which they had repented and to bring at-one-ment between the people and God see Leviticus In the final week of His life, the high priestly ministry of the Savior became apparent.
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At the Last Supper, Jesus presided over the Passover meal, at which He introduced the symbols of the new covenant—the bread and the wine. In the Garden of Gethsemane, He began the process of expiation for the sins of the world by offering Himself, before His Father, as the blood sacrifice.
On the cross, He continued His suffering until He died. The book of Hebrews explains that Jesus, through the Atonement, was fulfilling the symbolism of the high priest on the Day of Atonement see Hebrews 8— Symbolically, Jesus entered the Holy of Holies, or presence of God, one time.
He did not have to make sacrifice for Himself because He was pure; He brought to God the sacrifice of His own blood, offering one sacrifice—an infinite and eternal sacrifice—for the sins of the world. The rending of the veil symbolized the fulfilment of the old covenant and that through the power of the Atonement and the Melchizedek Priesthood all are invited to repent of their sins and enter into the presence of God. The most prominent imagery in the scriptures of the coming of the Messiah is the imagery of the Messiah as the anointed king of Israel.
In ancient Israel, the king was God—Jehovah, the God of heaven and earth. During the time of Samuel, the people clamored for a king, and with a warning the Lord allowed them to have one. The anointed king was to represent God on earth. We can learn both from the prophecies concerning the Messiah and from the kings of Israel, particularly David, what the future king was to be like and what characteristics the messianic king would have:.
The Davidic covenant was an unconditional promise to the house of David that a descendant from his seed would rule forever. One of the titles by which the messianic king became known and was often called was the Son of David. The Gospels present Jesus as the fulfilment of these prophecies. The Gospel of Matthew, for example, begins with a genealogy of Jesus, tracing His royal lineage back to David.
David is mentioned five times in the seventeen-verse genealogy so the reader will surely be aware of the divinely decreed lineage of David from which Jesus is descended. The anointing of Saul, David, and Solomon helps us to understand that the king was called upon for special responsibilities from the Lord and given special gifts in connection with those responsibilities. Anointing was like being set apart with an invitation to be filled with the Spirit.
One of the most common metaphors for kings in the ancient Near East was the shepherd. Often when we talk about kings, we emphasize power and might. The king actually had a wide range of responsibilities. Kings were called to shepherd their people, to care for them, to reach out to the poor and oppressed, to offer release from prison. Ye eat the fat, and ye clothe you with the wool, ye kill them that are fed: but ye feed not the flock. The diseased have ye not strengthened, neither have ye healed that which was sick, neither have ye bound up that which was broken. Jesus taught that the Good Shepherd knows His sheep by name and they know His voice.
Isaiah gives us many attributes concerning the messianic king. David ruled during the golden age of Israel and became the type of the king—brave, faithful, loyal, sensitive, and full of the Spirit. In Zech 3 this future will lead to peace, prosperity and good relationships In Zech 13 the future will be marked by purification v. Although Zech 3 focuses on Joshua it does not exclude other people. The high priest is seen as a representative or leader of his people.
If he is purified, he can lead his people in this purification process. That is why Zech 13 speaks about the false prophets that will be removed vv.
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The whole land must be purified. Therefore, one finds four references to "land" in these chapters ; [2x], 8. The guilt of the whole land will removed , the land will be purified from idols and false prophets vv. Some scholars argue that Joshua was filthy and unclean, because he lived for a while in Babylon, the unclean land. Zechariah refers to the festal apparel and turban of the high priest and Zech refers to the "hairy mantle" of the prophet. God does not purify his people so that they may remain where they are. The ultimate goal of the purification process is the restoration of the relationship between God and his people and the mutual relationship between people.
One can therefore say that the themes of purification, renewal and forgiveness are related to one another. It is God's wish that there will be a positive outcome. This is what the texts of Zech 3 and 13 portray. There are several differences between these two chapters, but the similarities between chs. It may suggest that there was a continuing tradition where the theme of purification played an important role. The theme of purification cannot be typified as the central theme in the book of Zechariah.
However, the study of this theme in chs. The post-exilic community in Jerusalem that forms the socio-historical background to this book, needed to be purified by God. Chapter 3 focuses more on the purification of Joshua, the high priest while ch. In Zech 3 YHWH replaces the filthy clothes with a clean turban, but in Zech 13 the unclean spirit and prophets will be removed from the land.
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YHWH cannot purify Jerusalem ; , the land ; and the people with unclean leaders priests, prophets and shepherds. Both chapters close on a positive note, describing the effect of purification: there will be peace amongst the people and the acknowledgement that YHWH is their God Boda, Mark J. Haggai, Zechariah.
Grand Rapids, Mich. Cook, Stephen L. Floyd, Michael H.
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Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, McComiskey, Thomas E. Edited by Thomas E.